1) Carpal tunnel
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. It is typically caused by repetitive tasks involving the hand and wrist such as typing. As the condition progresses, atrophy (decrease in muscle size) of the thumb muscles may occur. Surgical release of the transverse carpal ligament is often performed before muscle wasting occurs. .
2) De Quervain Tenosynovitis
De Quervain tenosynovitis is a common condition in which the tendons that extend or straighten the thumb and their surrounding sheaths (extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus) become inflamed. Pain is located at the base of the thumb and wrist. De Quervain’s tenosynovitis is common with repetitive work activities such as wringing and scissoring tasks.
3) Wrist Drop (Nerve injury)
Wrist drop is a medical condition in which the wrist and the fingers cannot extend or lift at the metacarpophalangeal joints. The wrist remains partially flexed due to an opposing action of the flexor muscles of the forearm. As a result, the extensor muscles in the posterior compartment remain paralysed.
4) Trauma/ Fractures
The fingers are susceptible to fracture in household mishaps, recreational injuries and work-related trauma. Most hand fractures are stable and do not require surgery. However, occasionally, fractures will not heal without appropriate surgical intervention. Internal support or ‘hardware’ (splint) is essential to stabilise fractures. Through physiotherapy, you will be able to regain motion, decrease pain, and reduce swelling and ultimately restore range of motion (ROM) and strength.